【英文文法】英文轉述句就要這樣學! 你不可不知的文法小重點

 

轉述他人說的話,你知道這些應該注意的文法嗎?

快看看小編整理的文法重點,檢查你有沒有犯了什麼錯誤呢?

首先,先整理轉述的文法重點:

1. 基本句型:

a. Someone said (that)…

b. Someone told me (that)…

 

2. 時態變化:

a. Present → Past 現在式 → 過去式

b. Past → Past Perfect 過去式→過去完成式

c. Future → Conditional 未來式→條件句

接下來,讓我們來詳細介紹:

1. 句型

如果要轉述別人的話,我們可以用 said 和 told 兩個動詞,但是使用上有點不同,

只有 told 後面需要加上受詞,但said後面不能加上受詞。因此轉述的基本句型為:

Someone said (that)…/Someone told me (that)…

【例句】

Jim said that his dog was sick.

Mary told me that you hated spiders.

2. 時態

由於轉述別人的話時,說話者早已說完,

因此常常以過去式表示,並且使用轉述句時態會如此變化:

a. Present → Past 現在式 → 過去式

【例句】

He said, “I love you.”→ He said he loved me.

(現在簡單式→過去簡單式)

He said, “I am watching TV.”→ He said that he was watching TV.

(現在進行式→過去進行式)

She said, “I have bought some cookies.”→ She said that she had bought some cookies.

(現在完成式→過去完成式)

She said, “I have been running for three hours.”→ She said that she had been running for three hours.

(現在完成進行式→過去完成進行式)

b. Past → Past Perfect 過去式→過去完成式

【例句】

He said, “I met a girl.”→ He said that he had met a girl.

(過去簡單式→過去完成式)

He told me, “We had gone to the stadium.”→ He told me that they had gone to the stadium.

(過去完成式→過去完成式)

He told me, “We were doing our homework .”→ He told me that they had been doing their homework.

(過去進行式→過去完成進行式)

3. Future → Conditional 未來式→條件句

【例句】

She said, “I will call you tomorrow.”→ She said that she would call me tomorrow.

(未來式→現在條件式)

She said, “I will be shopping on Saturday.”→ She said that she would be shopping on Saturday.

(未來進行式→條件進行式)

都學會了嗎?不妨使用Engoo相關的文法教材,

和Engoo老師一起練習轉述用法吧!

Engoo教材傳送門:

Reported Speech I: Reported Speech With Present Tense Reporting Verb

Reported Speech II: Reported Speech With Past Tense Reporting Verb

參考資料:

Oxenden, C. / Latham-koenig, C. / Seligson, P. 2013.American English File 2. Second Edition . Oxford Univ Pr.