【英文文法】多益必考的分詞構句,這樣理解保證不再搞混!(下)

文/ 尹宜蓁

簡單來說,分詞構句就是「減化版的副詞子句」。

不知道什麼是副詞子句的話,可以先參考這篇:

【英文文法】多益必考的分詞構句,這樣理解保證不再搞混!(上)

為什麼要減化?

其實它只是一種修辭,為了美化句子而已~

怎麼減化?

Step1找到副詞子句,並把連接詞去掉*
(*註:如果去掉連接詞會造成前後語意模糊,則不建議去除)
Step2若副詞子句的主詞主要子句的主詞,則去掉副詞子句的主詞
若副詞子句的主詞主要子句的主詞,則保留副詞子句的主詞 (獨立分詞構句)
Step3若副詞子句為主動,把動詞改為Ving (如果改完是being也可省略)
若副詞子句為被動,則去掉be動詞

為了幫助理解,小編整理了接下來的範例供大家參考:

【範例1】

Because I overslept this morning, I was late for school.

Step 1. 找到副詞子句,並把連接詞去掉

>> Because I overslept this morning, I was late for school.

Step 2. 副詞子句和主要子句的主詞皆為I,則可去掉副詞子句中的I

>> Because I overslept this morning, I was late for school.

Step 3. 副詞子句為主動,把動詞改為Ving

>> Oversleeping this morning, I was late for school.

【範例2】

When he was taking a bath, he came up with a good idea.

Step 1. 找到副詞子句,並把連接詞去掉

>> When he was taking a bath, he came up with a good idea.

Step 2. 副詞子句和主要子句的主詞皆為he,則可去掉副詞子句中的he

>> When he was taking a bath, he came up with a good idea.

Step 3. 副詞子句為主動,把動詞改為Ving

>> Being taking a bath, he came up with a good idea.

動詞改為Ving後是being,being可省略

>> Taking a bath, he came up with a good idea.

【範例3】

After she was seated by the window, she started to read the menu.

Step 1. 若將連接詞after去掉,兩動作的前後關係不清楚,因此保留after

Step 2. 副詞子句和主要子句的主詞皆為she,則可去掉副詞子句中的she

>> After she was seated by the window, she started to read the menu.

Step 3. 副詞子句為被動,去掉be動詞

>> After seated by the window, she started to read the menu.

【範例4(獨立分詞構句)】

As the pandemic broke out, the streets became empty.

Step 1. 找到副詞子句,並把連接詞去掉

>> As the pandemic broke out, the streets became empty.

Step 2. 副詞子句的主詞是the pandemic,主要子句的主詞是the street,兩者不一樣,所以都要保留

Step 3. 副詞子句為主動,把動詞改為Ving

>> The pandemic breaking out, the streets became empty.

除了副詞子句外,and所引導的子句有時也會被減化為分詞構句,

減化方式和副詞子句一樣,

接下來的範例5就是以and子句減化的分詞構句:

【範例5】

He went to a convenience store, and he bought a bottle of water.

Step 1. 找到and子句,並把連接詞and去掉

>> He went to a convenience store, and he bought a bottle of water.

Step 2. and子句和主要子句的主詞皆為he,則可去掉and子句中的he

>> He went to a convenience store, and he bought a bottle of water.

Step 3. and子句為主動,把動詞改為Ving

>> He went to a convenience store, buying a bottle of water.

分詞構句要判斷的眉眉角角比較多,

不過它的大原則就是「在語意清楚的情況下刪減文字」。

分詞構句用於寫作時,能精簡語句又增添亮點,

但一篇文章出現一到兩次就好,

不然一樣的梗玩太多次,就有失增添亮點的效果囉~

最後,恭喜各位正式成為分詞構句大師!